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30x30 In Hot Water: The Climate Crisis and the Urgent Need for Ocean Protection

This report of Greenpeace emphasizes the urgency of taking real action to reduce climate change and addresses the role of oceans in this process, as well as the consequences of climate change for the oceans. Drawing on recent science, this report sets out how ocean resilience can be build by protecting at least 30% of the oceans worldwide and includes topics like blue carbon, the impacts of fossil fuel emissions, impacts on ocean carbon storage, ocean sanctuaries and important political agreements and initiatives.

Enabling Effective and Equitable Marine Protected Areas – guidance on combining governance approaches

UN Environment developed an evidence-based guide on how to use the governance of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in promoting conservation and and a sustainable use of marine resources. Case studies from around the world were used to highlight different MPA governance approaches and to develop a govenance framework that can be used as part of an adaptive management cycle. The guide recognizes that there is no 'one size fits all' solution and identifies gender, class and cultural differences in the management and governance of MPAs.

Guidelines for applying the IUCN protected area management categories to marine protected areas

The second edition of this IUCN report provides guidelines on how to implement the protected area management categories to Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). The main purpose of this report is to offer supplementary guidelines to increase the accuracy and consistency of assignment and reporting of the IUCN categories applied to MPAs and therewith contributing to the goal 'developing capacity for a protected planet'.  

Enhancing Nationally Determined Contributions through Protected Areas

This report of WWF US shares the evaluation of Nationally Determined Commitments (NDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 2015 Paris Agreement. These NDCs emphasize the role protected areas and other conserved areas play in the achievement of global mitigation and adaptation targets. By reviewing the 151 currently available NDCs, this report determines how parties intent to use protected areas to contribute to climate challenges.

Protected Planet Report 2018: Tracking progress towards global targets for protected areas

The Protected Planet Report series, launched in 2012, helps track international progress towards achieving Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 - a target for the global protected area network and for other related targets. One of the key messages of the 2012 Protected Planet Report was that a better understanding and more complete overview of each element of Target 11 would be helpful. The 2018 Protected Planet Report provides just such an overview by summarizing current knowledge and progress towards each element of the overall target.

A global assessment of the direct and indirect benefits of marine protected areas for coral reef conservation

This study contributes to the evidence of the benefits of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) for enhancing coral cover. A global dataset with information of 30 MPAs,  obtained with standardized survey methods, was used was to test the effects of five key MPA attributes on coral cover, algal cover and reef fish biomass. The results show that only well-managed, no-take MPAs that were at least ten years old had higher coral cover compared to unprotected areas.

Evaluating fisheries systems: A comprehensive analytical framework and its application to the EU's Common Fisheries Policy

To identify the priorities for future reforms of the EU's Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), the authors of this article developed an analytical framework. This framework consists of 17 criteria and indicators, which were applied to the CFP governance system, including its institutions, regulations and processes. Significantly, the results show that not one of the 17 criteria is sufficiently met for an effective resource policy.

Sharks, rays and marine protected areas: A critical evaluation of current perspectives

Although Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly advocated for the protection of sharks and rays, which species can benefit from MPAs remains largely unclear and many recently created large MPAs have vague objectives and potentially different notions of 'success'. Therefore, this article critically evaluates perspectives on how MPAs can contribute to shark and ray conservation. It is argued that a stronger focus on achieving social outcomes in the establishment and management of MPAs can benefit the protection of sharks and rays.

Marine protected areas enhance coral reef functioning by promoting fish biodiversity

In this article, the researchers use meta-analysis and path-analytical framework to analyse the impact of ecosystem-based management and area closures on key ecological processes. Through studies in three regions (the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Ocean), it is demonstrated that, on average, marine protected areas enhance herbivory rates on coral reefs and increase the species richness of herbivorous fishes. In turn, these fishes enhance browsing rates on macroalgae, though only a small subset of the herbivore assemblage was responsible for the majority of browsing in the studied regions.

Study on the economic benefits of marine protected areas

This report is one of the products of a project reviewing the economic benefits of MPAs, which is initiated by the European Commission and carried out by ICF, IEEP and PML. This study, task five of the larger project, gathered information from ten MPA case studies through qualitative research including stakeholder interviews and field visits. The ten case studies investigated the economic benefits of MPAs to evalaluate findings resulting from the project's previous research tasks and to collect lessons learned based on situations from different MPAs in European waters.