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Marine nature conservation and conflicts with fisheries

Conflicts caused by different interests of marine conservation initiatives and fisheries are increasing around the globe, and many times a lack of dialogue plays an important role in these conflicts. Therefore, an improved coordination between fishery and marine conservation authorities during marine protected area (MPA) establishment processes is of great importance. This paper proposes that an impartial and broad ecosystem-based marine spatial planning procedure is an suitable tool to improve the coordination between the different stakeholders.

Geopolitics and Marine Conservation: Synergies and Conflicts

Transboundary conservation is undervalued in the international conservation regime, in particular in the legally complex and interconnected field of marine protection. There is a lack of clear guidelines for transboundary marine protection, causing that transboundary initiatives have developed their own governance systems. Although well-managed transboundary marine protected areas (MPAs) can contribute significantly to marine conservation targets, their designation can cause or further complicate regional conflicts.

Do static and dynamic marine protected areas that restrict pelagic fishing achieve ecological objectives?

Recently, there has been an increase in large-scale marine protected areas (MPAs) with pelagic habitats that contribute significantly managing threats to pelagic ecosystems, as well as to achieving the Aichi Biodiversity Target 11. This study assessed evidence for achieving ecological targets by dynamic and static spatial management of pelagic fisheries; very few other studies have analysed the ecological effects of MPAs that limit pelagic fisheries.

30x30 In Hot Water: The Climate Crisis and the Urgent Need for Ocean Protection

This report of Greenpeace emphasizes the urgency of taking real action to reduce climate change and addresses the role of oceans in this process, as well as the consequences of climate change for the oceans. Drawing on recent science, this report sets out how ocean resilience can be build by protecting at least 30% of the oceans worldwide and includes topics like blue carbon, the impacts of fossil fuel emissions, impacts on ocean carbon storage, ocean sanctuaries and important political agreements and initiatives.

Enabling Effective and Equitable Marine Protected Areas – guidance on combining governance approaches

UN Environment developed an evidence-based guide on how to use the governance of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in promoting conservation and and a sustainable use of marine resources. Case studies from around the world were used to highlight different MPA governance approaches and to develop a govenance framework that can be used as part of an adaptive management cycle. The guide recognizes that there is no 'one size fits all' solution and identifies gender, class and cultural differences in the management and governance of MPAs.

Guidelines for applying the IUCN protected area management categories to marine protected areas

The second edition of this IUCN report provides guidelines on how to implement the protected area management categories to Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). The main purpose of this report is to offer supplementary guidelines to increase the accuracy and consistency of assignment and reporting of the IUCN categories applied to MPAs and therewith contributing to the goal 'developing capacity for a protected planet'.  

Enhancing Nationally Determined Contributions through Protected Areas

This report of WWF US shares the evaluation of Nationally Determined Commitments (NDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 2015 Paris Agreement. These NDCs emphasize the role protected areas and other conserved areas play in the achievement of global mitigation and adaptation targets. By reviewing the 151 currently available NDCs, this report determines how parties intent to use protected areas to contribute to climate challenges.

Protected Planet Report 2018: Tracking progress towards global targets for protected areas

The Protected Planet Report series, launched in 2012, helps track international progress towards achieving Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 - a target for the global protected area network and for other related targets. One of the key messages of the 2012 Protected Planet Report was that a better understanding and more complete overview of each element of Target 11 would be helpful. The 2018 Protected Planet Report provides just such an overview by summarizing current knowledge and progress towards each element of the overall target.

A global assessment of the direct and indirect benefits of marine protected areas for coral reef conservation

This study contributes to the evidence of the benefits of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) for enhancing coral cover. A global dataset with information of 30 MPAs,  obtained with standardized survey methods, was used was to test the effects of five key MPA attributes on coral cover, algal cover and reef fish biomass. The results show that only well-managed, no-take MPAs that were at least ten years old had higher coral cover compared to unprotected areas.

Evaluating fisheries systems: A comprehensive analytical framework and its application to the EU's Common Fisheries Policy

To identify the priorities for future reforms of the EU's Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), the authors of this article developed an analytical framework. This framework consists of 17 criteria and indicators, which were applied to the CFP governance system, including its institutions, regulations and processes. Significantly, the results show that not one of the 17 criteria is sufficiently met for an effective resource policy.

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