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Applying IUCN’s Global Conservation Standards to Marine Protected Areas (MPA)

Applying IUCN’s Global Conservation Standards to MPAs is a synthesis of the existing IUCN Green List Standard for Protected and Conserved Areasi, together with current relevant policies taken from approved IUCN Resolutions and Guidance documentsii. Designed to support Governments, Agencies, NGOs, Donors, Community-Based Organizations, MPA managers and many others, this document brings all this information together for the first time into this single format to inform the fair and effective design and management of MPAs.

Climate Adaptation Methodology for Protected Areas

Climate change poses serious threats to many coastal and marine systems, including those being managed as protected areas. Yet people responsible for the management of coastal and marine protected areas (CMPAs) do not have to wait and see their sites deteriorate, but can take active steps to minimise the detrimental impacts of climate change. Because many coastal areas are heavily settled by human communities, such actions need to be taken in close cooperation with people living inside or near to the CMPA, which often include fishing communities and tourism operators.

Transforming management of tropical coastal seas to cope with challenges of the 21st century

Over 1.3 billion people live on tropical coasts, primarily in developing countries. Many depend on adjacent coastal seas for food, and livelihoods. We show how trends in demography and in several local and global anthropogenic stressors are progressively degrading capacity of coastal waters to sustain these people. Far more effective approaches to environmental management are needed if the loss in provision of ecosystem goods and services is to be stemmed.

A General Business Model for Marine Reserves

Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years.

Protecting Marine Spaces: Global Targets and Changing Approaches

This is an online article about a "study — developed in conjunction with the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre and published in the Ocean Yearbook — assessed the state of ocean protection efforts to date and provides recommendations for how to achieve real success for the future. The authors reviewed 10,280 MPAs, covering 8.3 million square kilometers or 2.3% of the world’s ocean area."

Explaining global patterns and trends in marine protected area (MPA) development

The relative paucity and heterogeneous distribution of marine protected areas (MPAs) indicates the need for better understanding of factors that foster MPA establishment at local, sub-national, and national levels. The relationship between national-level MPA establishment and geographic, ecological, social, and political factors that may drive patterns and trends in MPA establishment were assessed. A country's coastline length is the strongest predictor of both the number and spatial extent of MPAs.

Larval dispersal and movement patterns of coral reef fishes, and implications for marine reserve network design

This article provides its readers with advices on marine network design from the perspective of larval dispersal. The information gathered in this research allows, for the first time, to advice on the size, spacing and location of marine reserves in tropical marine ecosystems in order to maximise benefits for conservation and fisheries management, for a range of species.

The importance of regional networks of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and how to achieve them

This article shares strategic lessons from 40 years of experience from Graeme Kelleher on the establishment and management of MPAs. According to the author, the guidelines in the paper are at strategic and can be globally adapted, since successful methods are often similar at strategic level in different places in the world. The guidelines are summarized in a clear and brief way so they are easily to adapt by MPA professionals.

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